A Critical Review: Hue, 1968 by Mark Bowden


By Nicholas Warr, Veteran, Operation HUE CITY

Author, Phase Line Green; The Battle for Hue, 1968

Mark Bowden, who wrote the excellent book, Black Hawk Down, took on the very challenging task of attempting to document one of the largest, deadliest and most controversial battles of the Vietnam War in Hue, 1968. This epic book includes 600 pages of dialogue, commentary and information (including glossary, notes and index). Bowden has introduced several new “voices” from the past, including American veterans of that battle and those who fought on the other side, VC and NVA soldiers, as well as many American journalists who covered the war and this historic battle. Over a period of five years, Mr. Bowden studied and researched, conducted countless interviews, and traveled twice to Vietnam. This was clearly a huge effort, but after a thorough reading of the book, I’m left wondering how this new bestseller could possibly be cursed with so many errors and omissions. Continue reading

PROJECT UPDATE: The Forgotten Marines at Hue; Tet, 1968 Documentary Film

With just over two months to go before our trip to Vietnam, and considering my poor fund-raising results as of today, I’m now changing strategy and moving to “Plan D.” Plans B and C were efforts to reduce the cost of taking a film crew with us to Vietnam as a part of the “1/5 Returns to I Corps” tour, but I was not able to secure enough money to cover the costs of even taking one videographer with us. However, I am still 100% committed to my long-term goal to produce this documentary film.

I had great hopes that we would be able to raise significant funds, so we could secure Fred Smith’s terrific $50,000.00 challenge pledge, but that has just not been realized. Fred’s pledge expires on 12/31/2017, and we’re nowhere near raising the money needed to secure that pledge. I wish to personally thank Fred Smith for supporting this project, and for all the many Marine Corps-related causes he has so generously supported over the years. The project pledges we have received thus far are not insignificant, and they are greatly appreciated, but they do not add up to what will be needed down the road to do this right.

So, we will not be taking a documentary film crew with us to Vietnam as part of the “1/5 Returns to I Corps” tour next February. Plan D entails a one-day film shoot at Camp Pendleton, CA, with a small film crew. The shoot will take place on Saturday, 2/3/18, at Camp San Mateo, the Fighting Fifth’s headquarters. I’m already aware that several Hue City Veterans will be there for the Annual 1st Marine Division Anniversary week (29 January – 2 February), so this would present us with a great opportunity to get many Hue City Veterans on film. More important, I’m able to fund this shoot myself, so I will not be risking “other people’s money” until I’m certain that the doc film will become a reality given the proper funding.

If you are a Hue City Veteran and you’re planning to attend the Anniversary (and if you’ve never been to one of these great “mini-reunions” just know that they are a great time!) or would be willing and able to do so, this is your invitation to be there and participate in the film’s development.

Once this one-day shoot has been completed, the film team will then create a “trailer” or short demo film, which will be posted on YouTube and used in our future fund-raising campaign. If that doesn’t work out, then so be it. If it does, and we are able to raise all the money needed to create, produce and distribute the documentary film, then we will plan another trip to Vietnam sometime later next year to capture a lot more film.

If you are interested in attending the 77th Anniversary of the 1st Marine Division event, and if you are interested, willing and able to participate in the shoot on Saturday, February 3rd at Camp San Mateo, please contact me here.

Semper Fidelis!

Missing from Mark Bowden’s Hue, 1968

The Lance Corporal Paul Cheatwood Story

I continue to re-read and study Mark Bowden’s new book about the Battle for Hue. I must confess that I have very strong, but also very contradictory feelings about this work. On one hand, I wish to thank Mr. Bowden for completing this book because that accomplishment, more than just about anything over the past several decades, has resulted in a significant increase in interest about that chapter in our history, and that interest seems to be coming from a wide range of individual perspectives. When I committed to read and review the book, I was determined to read every word, which goal I did accomplish. I also, as promised, wrote and released a book review which is now posted on my BLOG. My “re-read” was generated by self-interest; I wanted to see if Mr. Bowden had included all the actions of many of our heroes, those who fought on phase line green and the Dong Ba Tower. Fortunately, most of those actions are included, but I soon learned, to my dismay, that Bowden failed to include even one word about a Marine who was, in my mind but without a doubt, “The Hero” of the battle for the Citadel Fortress of Hue.

Paul Cheatwood

Paul Cheatwood

His name is Lance Corporal Paul Cheatwood. Lance Corporal Cheatwood pulled off several amazing and heroic acts in his single-handed effort to save his friends, killing several of the enemy soldiers he faced in the process, yet somehow lived to tell about it. This brave Marine’s story proves the adage that One man can make a difference.”

Lieutenant General Ron Christmas, USMC (Ret), who, as a young captain, served as an infantry company commander during the Battle for Hue, has often remarked about “Lance Corporal Ingenuity,” and how that one element (adapt, improvise, overcome) often turned the tide in battle. I wholeheartedly agree with him, but this was a case of “Lance Corporal Bravery.”  Paul Cheatwood’s incredibly courageous actions on February 16, 1968, saved many of his fellow Marines’ lives, destroyed many of the enemy, and changed the course of the entire battle.

No one could have possibly predicted what Lance Corporal Cheatwood would do on the morning of 16 February 1968. Paul was a 60mm mortarman. He was a U. S. Marine. He was doing his job along with his fellow Bravo Company mortarmen, a short distance behind the fierce street fighting. Since early that morning, they had been firing mortar barrage, after mortar barrage against the huge force of enemy soldiers stubbornly defending their positions in all the houses on the south side of the street we dubbed phase line green. A line drawn by a green marker pen on a battle map, My Thuc Loan Street became phase line green, a “line in the sand” separating the Marines from the hundreds of NVA soldiers they had been fighting on this blood-soaked street for the better part of four days. At that point, the entire battalion of Marines and Sailors known as One Five had suffered more than 40% casualties, most of whom had either been killed in action, or wounded in action and evacuated.

Paul was supposed to stay where he was and continue to fire mortar barrages, but when he heard the shouts, screams and shrieks from his fellow Bravo Company Marines come across the radio net, he acted immediately to try his best to save them. Most of them were friends, not just fellow Marines. No one could have ever predicted that Lance Corporal Paul Cheatwood, U. S. Marine, would leave his post at the mortar pits, rush forward, cross the street under fire, and then single-handedly and remorselessly attack and destroy both enemy machine gun positions with hand grenades while being painfully wounded several times. Paul’s amazing acts of courage saved the Bravo Company attack force, single-handedly securing a “beachhead” across the street for the first time in those four long days of all-out urban warfare.

Those of us who were there that day know that Lance Corporal Paul Cheatwood was that one man whose incredible acts of courage made a huge difference. Those of us who fought in the Citadel and who know his story will never forget how important his deeds were to all the rest of us. We saw and heard it all unfold, and our memories of those moments were indelibly etched in our minds and memories. No book about the Battle for Hue is complete without including Paul’s story. One man turned the tide.

When I later learned that Paul Cheatwood had been awarded the Navy Cross, I knew in my heart that Cheatwood had earned the right to wear the Medal of Honor. Read his Navy Cross citation and judge for yourself:


Paul passed away just a few years ago. We hope his family members know how much he was respected and loved by his fellow Marines who fought in Hue. I have learned that several combat veterans knew what Paul had done, and all of us realized the absolute fact that had Paul failed to secure that beachhead, many more U. S. Marines and U. S. Navy Corpsmen would have surely perished. A total of four, and possibly more, letters were sent to HQMC back then, recommending that Corporal Paul Cheatwood receive the Medal of Honor for his incredible acts of valor on February 16, 1968, in the Citadel Fortress of Hue.

We will not forget. www.5thmarinesvietnammemorial.org

Semper Fidelis!

Nicholas Warr


Hue, 1968 by Mark Bowden – Author of Black Hawk Down.

Book Cover Hue 1968Mark Bowden, a career journalist who rightfully achieved significant success after publication of his excellent book, Black Hawk Down, and the movie that followed, took on the very challenging task of documenting one of the largest, deadliest and most controversial battles of the Vietnam War in Hue, 1968. He succeeded in at least one sense. Within 600 pages of dialogue, commentary and information (including glossary, notes and index), he has introduced several new “voices” from the past, both American veterans of that battle and those who fought on the other side, VC and NVA soldiers, as well as many American journalists who covered the war and this historic battle. Over a period of five years, Mr. Bowden studied and researched, conducted countless interviews, and traveled twice to Vietnam. In that process, this work expanded into a book about the entire scope of the American “chapter” of the Vietnam War, using the Battle for Hue as its primary focus.

I bought this book and read it after receiving many phone calls and emails from friends and acquaintances letting me know about its release; they wanted to hear my opinion. These folks had read my first book, Phase Line Green; The Battle for Hue, 1968, in which I recounted what I saw and criticized both Marine Corps leadership and the U.S. Government for allowing so many thousands of young men to be lost not just because of the actions of the enemy, but due to the actions or lack of action in our conduct of the war. As I read the parts of Hue, 1968 that focused on the Battle for the Citadel Fortress, Phase 2 of Operation HUE CITY, I was hoping to find clarity. Unfortunately, what I found was that Bowden’s interview conclusions do not jibe with my first-hand knowledge of that battle and what I reported in my book.

As I read and studied Bowden’s book, I tried to discover and understand his motivations for taking on this monumental task. He informs the reader that he was sixteen years old when the battle was fought, but that the news about the Tet Offensive captured his interest and led him inexorably into his reporting and writing career. Bowden was encouraged to take this project on by the publishers of Black Hawk Down, and he accomplished that task.  However, it is now apparent to me, after reading every word in the book, that Mr. Bowden has joined those historians and authors who, over the past five decades, have contributed to “The Narrative,” a line of reasoning and accumulation of opinions about the American War in Vietnam that are very disturbing to many of us who served in it, and especially those of us who have also studied the war and written about it.

The Narrative

Amongst other claims, “The Narrative” states that the war in Vietnam was “unwinnable;” that the United States was wrong to have gone there in the first place; and that the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong were simply “nationalists,” sympathetic characters who were fighting to kick the foreign invaders out of their country. I’m just puzzled that his work on this book, his studies of this single battle, have resulted in these sweeping and negative conclusions about the war. I’m especially puzzled that Bowden spends significant time and text relating stories from the VC and NVA that we fought, yet gives short shrift to the soldiers who were truly fighting for their country, South Vietnam, our ally, those who served in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).

For the same reasons that Mark Bowden needed 600 pages to cover the topic, a thorough justification of my reaction is beyond the scope and acceptable length of this review. If you would like to learn more about the errors and omissions I’ve discovered in this book, or identify other books and writings that contain the truth about the war, please get in touch with me.

For those of you who are hoping that Hue, 1968 would be the “definitive” accounting of this historic battle, I believe you will be very disappointed. I know I was.

Semper Fidelis!


Nicholas Warr, U. S. Marine
Infantry Officer, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, Vietnam War
Author, Phase Line Green; The Battle for Hue, 1968
and Charlie One Five; A Marine Company’s Vietnam War




Why I Write

OperationHueCity1967wounded-600wAt my core, I am a United States Marine. I was once a Marine, I am today a Marine, and I will always be a United States Marine. Further, I am a combat veteran of the Vietnam War, having served one full tour “in country” in 1967 and 1968 as an infantry officer with the 1st Battalion of the “Fighting Fifth” Marines, the legendary Marine infantry regiment.
I have always loved to read (at least since my sophomore year in high school after my English teacher assigned us the book Brave New World, a novel written in 1931 by Aldous Huxley) and ultimately my joy in reading transferred into a similar joy in writing. In particular, I love history, although I found much of what was taught in those history classes to be very boring (after all, why did I need to remember when the Magna Carta was signed? It was much more interesting to know what the Magna Carta was, and how it impacted humanity and affected our world, wasn’t it?).

And then, in the summer of 1966, I found myself in USMC Boot Camp at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, and my interest in history ramped up rather dramatically. With a little help from my Drill Instructors, who made it very clear to us that in order to “be” a Marine, we would need to learn not only the names and dates of our historical characters, but also what they did, and how it affected the Marine Corps’ history and legacy. Those very fascinating “characters” (and yes, many of them were truly just that) caught my imagination, and I have never stopped reading and studying history, in particular the Vietnam War chapter of U. S. Marine Corps history.

My friends and family have often asked me why I must write these histories. First and foremost, I’m determined to write the truth about the Vietnam War as I experienced it. How it tasted and smelled, looked and felt. How it is remembered by those who rose to the challenge of serving their country, risking everything in that worthy endeavor. Much of what has been written and most movies about the Vietnam War focus on “caricatures of aberrations” – a renegade general being pursued by a drunken Army Captain; drugged-out sergeants turning on each other, Americans killing their own. These lurid stories are mostly made-up; if similar incidents did occur, at least in my experience, they were the rare exceptions, not the rule. For the most part, those who experienced combat in Vietnam served their country and the South Vietnamese people with honor, did their best to do their duty and to survive the ordeals of combat, and then returned home and went on with their lives. That’s the Vietnam War I choose to write about. There will always be writers out there who wish to focus on those caricatures and aberrations, and there will always be folks willing to pay for the book to read those lurid stories. I willingly and gladly leave it to them.

When asked to describe the fighting during the battle for Iwo Jima in the South Pacific in World War Two, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz summed up the Marine fighting spirit with these few powerful words, “Uncommon valor was a common virtue.” These words aptly describe the Marines and sailors I served with in Vietnam.

I write about the Vietnam combat veterans of the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, because they’re true Americans who have done some rather amazing things as they served their country and Corps with honor and distinction, and because they are my friends. I will never forget the Marines of “One Five,” our battalion. All of them seemed so very young, yet many of them displayed an awesome courage, a gut-wrenching toughness and determination that allowed them to stand up in the face of certain death, and to somehow overcome their fears and push forward toward the sounds of gunfire. Over and over, for nearly thirteen months, I witnessed these young Americans as they overcame those all-too-real fears to defy the enemy trying to kill them, and somehow overcame adversity; and, in virtually every single battle during the Vietnam War, emerged victorious.

I also can’t forget the exotic sights, smells, tastes and sounds of the beautiful country called Vietnam. If ever a place fit the description of an “exotic foreign land,” Vietnam does. A picture taken from almost any spot in Vietnam could instantly become a best-selling “scenic” picture postcard. Vietnam’s coastlines boast hundreds of miles of palm-lined, white sandy beaches splashed by the clear, blue-green water of the South China Sea. Her western highlands are dominated by towering jungle-covered mountains overlooking huge expanses of emerald-green rice paddies spread dramatically between the feet of the mountains, and the shoulder of the South China Sea;s coastline.. Beautifully framed, nearly-magical villages and hamlets lay haphazardly across the landscape, near rivers or streams, interspersed throughout the lowlands, almost all of it paddy land. Yes, Vietnam was and is a beautiful, exquisitely scenic place, although many very disturbing black blemishes scarred the countryside during the war.

I can’t forget the smell of death, and the constant and shattering scenes of destruction that the war machines from both sides wreaked upon this beautiful but unfortunate land. Nearly every day of my 13-month combat tour in South Vietnam I witnessed, up close and personal, just how ugly a picture postcard scene could become at the hands of a 250-pound bomb, or some daisy-chained 105mm artillery shells set up as a command-detonated bomb, or napalm, or mortar and artillery fire, or the sustained concentration of small arms fire from machine guns and other automatic weapons; or worse, by shattered animal and human bodies littering the ground. Many of those scenes remain etched within my memories, and in my soul, indelibly, forever.

But most importantly I can’t, and I will never forget the U. S. Marines, the young American heroes who served with Charlie One Five during the Vietnam War. I can’t forget what they said and what they did. I have forgotten some of their names, but I can’t and won’t forget what they looked like. Their faces appear as canvases in my memories, upon which the complete scale of human emotions played out.

I saw laughter and happiness on those faces, because even in the most difficult and trying circumstances, these guys could somehow find humor. I saw the joy and elation of survival on those faces, but almost always those particular emotions became shaded with guilt, because they experienced joy from a victory in battle which meant that they had killed other human beings. Their faces often showed another form of guilt, generated by an involuntary but very human elation that overwhelmed them when they had somehow survived another battle, but their buddy had not. I saw their faces filled with anger, with hatred, with frustration, with fear, and with abject terror. I saw the facial etchings of hunger and fatigue, the dark shadows of sleep deprivation surrounding their wary eyes. I saw the quick acquisition of deep lines of physical exhaustion on their young but rapidly aging faces, oftentimes caused by physical deeds that they seemed uncertain they could do – but that somehow, they did.

These emotions came not only at the hands of our enemy, the Viet Cong and NVA soldiers, but also from our other enemy, the very land we fought to protect. The extreme terrain and weather conditions, as well as the exotic and dangerous wildlife and supposedly domesticated animals of South Vietnam sometimes took a greater toll on us than our Viet Cong and NVA enemy. Vietnam was then, and remains today, a truly amazing, exotic, and beautiful place.

Another emotion I invariably witnessed on the face of the Marines I met was love; love of America; love of the Marine Corps; love of freedom; love of a buddy. The reason didn’t matter one bit. Love simply resided there, in their hearts, every day. Love and deep friendship became determination, which became courage, which became the bravery to act in the face of certain death. And act they did, on many, many occasions. Some came home; too many didn’t.

These young Marines and their stories are my “motivation” to write the truth as I saw it in Vietnam. I believe their stories, especially the stories of those who did not come home, are very important. I believe that every American should study these stories and all the others that have been written about this era in American history, often labeled “the most divisive period in our history.” It’s important because I believe that the tragic outcome of the Vietnam War is negatively impacting our nation today, and every day, and has been since that long-ago day, April 30, 1975, when the war came to its horrible and unnecessary conclusion – the day the North Vietnamese Army secured Saigon. This was the day that the U. S. Congress’s betrayal of our ally, the Republic of South Vietnam, and the abandonment of their people to their fate, took their tragic effect.

In my heart, I believe that until we learn the truly important lessons from the Vietnam War, that legacy will continue to haunt our nation, and we will never be able to effectively defend our rights, our people, and our way of life, militarily, against any foe that has learned from those lessons and understand our Achilles heel. The only war in world history wherein one combatant won all the battles and yet lost the war, the American chapter of the Vietnam War, will remind them that all they have to do is watch and wait, and eventually we will give up and go home.

One Million Steps, by Bing West

bing-west-one-millionI’m a big fan of Bing West’s work, having read several of his earlier books including The Village, which is about the Combined Action Marines during the Vietnam War, and The March Up, which covered the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force’s march from Kuwait to Baghdad in March of 2003. All of Mr. West’s books are well-written, thoroughly researched, and “good reads,” but this new book, I believe, will go down in American Military History as one of the most important books written about the “long wars” of the 21st Century in the Middle East.
Right up front, I’m impressed that this man has managed to muster the courage, strength and endurance to cover those wars, up close and personal. Bing has “embedded” himself into these fights with the U. S. Marines and soldiers on the “front lines” repeatedly to make sure he gets the true story first hand. Since I know that he fought in Vietnam as a U. S. Marine Infantry Officer back in the late 60’s, I know he must be about my age, and I have to say that for this former U. S. Marine Infantry Officer who fought in Vietnam, I was nearly exhausted by just reading this book. Bing doesn’t just go into the battle space – he lives and patrols with the soldiers and Marines he writes about for long periods of time, and shares the significant risk of death or injury with them every single day.
Mr. West has exceeded the goal of every military historian who focuses on the foot soldier, which is to “tell the story” from the grunt’s point of view. But he has gone well beyond that with this new work by exposing the reader to the horrible truths about the dangerously flawed strategy embraced by our leadership, that of COIN, or Counterinsurgency. Bing bluntly points out the absolute insanity of our leaders’ stubborn adherence to this failed strategy, and how it affects our amazing young Marines in combat as they are put in a
seriously disadvantageous position on every patrol they conduct. Our political and military leadership should be doing everything they can to enhance our warfighter’s ability to accomplish their missions, yet they often tie the grunt’s hands behind their backs before sending them into harm’s way. The result is that our young American warfighters are being exposed to unnecessary risk, in a steady, consistent, daily confrontation with death and dismemberment, at the hands of an enemy who have no scruples, who are more than willing to break the rules of warfare, and who do so at every opportunity. Somehow, as Mr. West reports, these outstanding young Americans rise up every day, rushing out toward the sounds of gunfire, to confront the enemy and to defeat them again and again, despite their leaders’ lack of courage and commitment to actually win these wars.

Buy at Amazon

Buy at Amazon

Tragically, and too often, this unfortunate combination of extraordinary bravery by these grunts, a ghostlike enemy who knows no bounds, and a politically correct and dysfunctional leadership, resulted in terrible loss on the battlefield. The Marine platoon that Mr. West wrote about in this book suffered a higher rate of casualties than any other unit fighting in Afghanistan throughout the war. Over half of those Marines didn’t finish their
seven-month tour intact – those who suffered amputations were more fortunate than many, who made the ultimate sacrifice and gave their lives for their fellow Marines.
If you want to learn something important, including the truths about our soldiers and Marines fighting the wars in the Middle East, read One Million Steps by Bing West.